mexican repatriation primary sources
":89 The federal government imposed restrictions for immigrant labor as well, requiring firms that supply the government with goods and services refrain from hiring immigrants and, as a result, most larger corporations followed suit, and as a result, many employers fired their Mexican employees and few hired new Mexican workers causing unemployment to increase among the Mexican population. Spanish and Mexican Sources Archivo de Lucas Alamán Collection of more than 300 documents dealing with colonial Mexico from the 17th and … Demand for their labor dropped sharply with the onset of the Great Depression. During the Great Depression, some immigrants were no longer able to find work, and white Americans resented having jobs taken by foreigners. Although the law was hardly enforced, "employers used it as a convenient excuse for not hiring Mexicans. :150 After 1933, repatriation decreased from the 1931 peak, but was over 10,000 in most years until 1940.  The 1930 Census reported 1.3 million Mexicans in the US, but this number is not believed to be reliable, because some repatriations had already begun, illegal immigrants were not counted, and the Census attempted to use racial concepts that did not map to how many Spanish-speakers in the Southwest defined their own identities. Despite the repatriations and deportations, however, Boulder County’s Latino population continued to grow across the 1930s.  This land was roughly half of Mexico's pre-war territory. ... [O]ur estimates suggest that [repatriation] may have further increased [native] levels of unemployment and depressed their wages. When immigration increased early in the 20th century, some workers blamed Mexican Americans and Mexican migrant workers for holding down the wages in mining, agriculture, and other industries. This meant that they would be denied readmission, since they would be "liable to become a public charge". “Apology Act for the 1930s Mexican Repatriation Program.”  California has passed legislation attempting to address this in future curriculum revisions. But some were also U.S. citizens and deported to Mexico as well. Though he understood the pressing need to aid a crashing economy, Hoover resisted federal intervention, instead preferring a patchwork of piecemeal solutions, including the targeting of outsiders. :149 Hoffman estimates that over 400,000 Mexicans left the US between 1929 and 1937,:xiii with a peak of 138,000 in 1931. :384 Similarly, in Detroit, by 1932 one Mexican national reported to the local consul that police had "dragged" him to the train station against his will, after he had proven his residency the previous year. World War II reignited efforts to recruit Mexicans as the United States mobilized wartime production. Delgado + Stefancic, Home-Grown Racism, Excerpt #3. A plaque commemorating the individuals described in Section 8721 shall be installed and maintained by the Department of Parks and Recreation at an appropriate public place in Los Angeles. The Border Patrol launched several campaigns to detain Mexicans, including many U.S.-born citizens, and expel them across the border. (g) Authorities in California and other states instituted programs to wrongfully remove persons of Mexican ancestry and secure transportation arrangements with railroads, automobiles, ships, and airlines to effectuate the wholesale removal of persons out of the United States to Mexico. Read More / Related Primary Sources: Repatriation and Deportation of Mexicans, 1932-1936. These early waves of immigration also led to waves of repatriation, generally tied to economic downturns. :77 Modern economic research has also suggested that the economic impact of deportation was negligible or even negative. (c) In total, it is estimated that two million people of Mexican ancestry were forcibly relocated to Mexico, approximately 1.2 million of whom had been born in the United States, including the State of California. Section3describes the data we use to measure Mexican repatriations and the labor market outcomes. A Continent Divided: The U.S.-Mexico War Includes primary sources from the war such as proclamations, letters, diaries, images, maps, music, and poetry--select "Documents" in the Browse menu.
:185–186, The federal government responded to the increased levels of immigration that began during World War II (partly due to increased demand for agricultural labor) with the official 1954 INS program called Operation Wetback, in which an estimated one million persons, the majority of whom were Mexican nationals and immigrants without papers, were repatriated to Mexico. This followed the Wall Street crash of 1929, and resulting growth in nativist sentiment, exemplified by President Herbert Hoover's call for deportation:4, 74–75 and a series on the racial inferiority of Mexicans run by the Saturday Evening Post. (d) Throughout California, massive raids were conducted on Mexican-American communities, resulting in the clandestine removal of thousands of people, many of whom were never able to return to the United States, their country of birth. , A legal scholar has argued that since the forced movement was based on race, and frequently ignored citizenship, the process meets modern legal standards for ethnic cleansing.  Mexican government sources suggest over 300,000 were repatriated between 1930 and 1933,:fn 20 while Mexican media reported up to 2,000,000 during a similar span. , Repatriation is not widely discussed in U.S. history textbooks. 2005, Ch. In 2006, Congressional representatives Hilda Solis and Luis Gutiérrez introduced a bill calling for a commission to study the issue. :63 This process was likely a violation of US federal due process, equal protection, and Fourth Amendment rights. When there was little response to that order, Johnson briefly called out the militia to blockade Colorado’s southern border to prevent people from returning. Repatriation and Deportation of Mexicans, 1932-1936, Book Outline with Teaching Links for Volume I: History and Contributions, Book Outline with Teaching Links for Volume II: Lives and Legacies, Generic Toolkits for Communities, Schools and Teachers, 1,500 Mexicans loaded on trains in Denver, 300-400 Weld County Mexicans leaving, 1932, 75 Mexicans quit country for Mexico, 1932, Boulder County Commissioners’ Resolution, 1932, Delgado + Stefancic, Home-Grown Racism, Excerpt #1, Delgado + Stefancic, Home-Grown Racism, Excerpt #2, Delgado + Stefancic, Home-Grown Racism, Excerpt #3, Mexican deportation in the 1930s, by Emma Gomez Martinez, Mexican families deported at county’s expense, 1932, Relief units swamped by needy’s calls, 1932, Train load of Mexicans will leave for homeland tonight, 1932. Beyond the curated lessons teachers are encouraged to explore the Primary Source Sets and access the full text of Prof. McIntosh’s books. Full Text PDF: Chapter 4: Conflict, Racism, and Violence, 1910-1940. some details about the Mexican repatriation program.  Mexicans who remained in the U.S. were considered U.S. citizens and were counted as "white" by the U.S. census until 1930, but a growing influx of immigrants combined with local racism led to the creation of a new category in the census of that year. :83 Los Angeles had the largest population of Mexicans outside of Mexico, and had a typical deportation approach, with a plan for "publicity releases announcing the deportation campaign, a few arrests would be made 'with all publicity possible and pictures,' and both police and deputy sheriffs would assist". :2 This led to complaints and criticisms from both the Mexican Consulate and local Spanish language publication, La Opinión. Primary Source Sets Repatriation and Deportation of Mexicans, 1932-1936 This resource examines deportation (or “repatriation”) of Mexicans who were unemployed or competed with white Americans for jobs during the 1930s, including a border blockade. (f) These raids targeted persons of Mexican ancestry, with authorities and others indiscriminately characterizing these persons as “illegal aliens” even when they were United States citizens or permanent legal residents. If the plaque is not located on state property, the department shall consult with the appropriate local jurisdiction to determine a site owned by the City or County of Los Angeles for location of the plaque.
From: Alex Wagner, “America’s Forgotten History of Illegal Deportations,” The Atlantic, March 6, 2017. Source.
The Legislature finds and declares all of the following: (Added by Stats. The State of California apologizes to those individuals described in Section 8721 for the fundamental violations of their basic civil liberties and constitutional rights committed during the period of illegal deportation and coerced emigration. There are three central components to this site. During the economic and political crises of the 1920s and 1930s, the Border Patrol launched several campaigns to detain Mexicans, including some U.S.-born citizens, and expel them across the border. 663, Sec. ":75 Doak's measures included monitoring labor protests or farm strikes and labeling protesters and protest leaders as possible subversives, communists, or radicals. Visel, the spokesman for Los Angeles Citizens Committee for Coordination of Unemployment Relief (LACCCU), wrote to the federal government that deportation was necessary because "[w]e need their jobs for needy citizens". 2005, Ch. (b) In California alone, approximately 400,000 American citizens and legal residents of Mexican ancestry were forced to go to Mexico. Estimates of how many were repatriated range from 400,000 to 2,000,000. Mexican-American family historians and other interested researchers occasionally contact the History Office in search of “Mexican Repatriation” records for individuals who left the U.S. during the Great Depression (1929-1939). :380–381 By 1932, such repatriation was no longer voluntary, as local governments and aid agencies in Gary began to use "repressive measures ... to force the return of reluctant voyagers". It also made it difficult for any Mexican, whether American citizens or foreign born, to get hired. During the depression of 1907, the Mexican government allocated funds to repatriate some Mexicans living in the United States.
 This led to the existence of Mexican communities outside of the Southwest, in places like Indiana and Michigan (though the vast majority of Mexicans in the US remained in the Southwest).
:fn 14, Reliable data for the total number repatriated is difficult to come by. However, no reparations for the victims were approved. , 80,000-100,000 Mexican citizens lived in this territory, and were promised U.S. citizenship under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican–American War.
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