The report of a government investigation confirmed problems in the election, but in a related court challenge to the results of the election, a federal court upheld the results. The fall of the Soviet Union as well as the horrors accompanying its history seem to answer unambiguously in favor of Russell.

[7] Means appeared as a spokesman and prominent leader. And this raises the question as to who was right in the end, Russell or Lenin and the Bolsheviks. But at least it shows that the ideas of classical socialism are not dead. [2], Means was previously an accountant and a ballroom dance instructor. As Russell put it, the fact that a man who is deprived of food and drink will grow weak, go mad, and finally die, “is not usually considered a good reason for inflicting death by starvation. Both Branscombe and Means accused Vernon Bellecourt, a high-ranking leader of AIM, of having ordered her execution. Normand Baillargeon is a professor of education at the Université du Québec à Montréal. Socialism, Places: Means appeared as a character in the adventure video game Under a Killing Moon,[38] by Access Software, in 1994. Means co-starred in Rez Bomb from director Steven Lewis Simpson, the first feature filmed on his native Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. On this point, Russell foresaw what would be the source of one of the major tragedies of the twentieth century: the use, first by European powers and then by the United States, of systematic subversion, direct or indirect assassination or coups d’état to “kill the hope” aroused by reformist movements and leaders in the third world: notably Mohammad Mossadegh in Iran, Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala, Patrice Lumumba in Congo, João Goulart in Brazil, Sukarno in Indonesia, and Salvador Allende in Chile. Nearly thirty years after his first candidacy, Means ran for president of the Oglala Sioux in 2004 with the help of Twila Lebeaux, losing to Cecilia Fire Thunder, the first woman elected president of the tribe. The official vote count showed Wilson winning by more than 200 votes. In The Spirit Level, Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett show statistically that in the Western world, relatively egalitarian societies (thanks to partial application of socialist ideas) enjoy enormous advantages in terms of health, safety, education, social mobility, and so on.10 In America Beyond Capitalism, Gar Alperovitz reviews all the more or less collective enterprises that already exist even in the “capitalist paradise” of the United States.11 In Spain the Mondragon cooperative, with its 35,000 employees, demonstrates that economic democracy and efficiency are not necessarily contradictory.

Means was a guest actor in the 1997 Duckman episode "Role With It", in which Duckman takes his family on an educational trip to a "genuine Indian reservation" — which turns out to be a casino. The Associated Press (AP) reporter Robert Weller noted that this was the first time that an AIM leader active at the time of Aquash's death had publicly implicated AIM in her murder. Soviet Union (USSR)

In 1995, Means published an autobiography, Where White Men Fear to Tread, written with Marvin J. Wolf. [19] That same month, they began contacting foreign governments to solicit support for energy projects on the territory. One could have hoped that with the collapse of the Soviet Union, that confusion would be cleared up, but it is the very opposite that took place. This was followed in 2007 with his The Radical album. The aspect of Russell’s book which remains the most timely is nevertheless his critique of the “theory” of Bolshevism, or the “materialist theory of history.” Once again, that has very little to do with Marx, even though it is true that Marx had a taste for apodictic formulas giving the impression of a mastery of the laws of historical development. An answer to that question is perhaps provided by the fact that after 1991, far from seeing the rise of a radical “non-Stalinist” left, such a left has completely vanished, as social democracy has become neoliberal and the left intelligentsia has turned to the joys of postmodernism and identity politics, while European green movements have abandoned their pacifism to support “humanitarian wars.”. Finally, the revolution did not take place—at least not the one pre-1914 socialists were thinking of, and no new world emerged from the war. Marx was a child of the Enlightenment, authoritarian in some ways and, contrary to the anarchists, not believing in the need to abolish the State immediately after the revolution. But things are not so simple, because the fall of the Soviet Union by no means marked a triumph of Russell’s ideas. Moreover, Russell’s optimism is astonishing, right in the midst of a war whose end could not be foreseen by anyone in the first months of 1918 (the Russian Revolution had in fact strengthened Germany). Where Russell also parted from critics of the Bolshevik Revolution on the right or the “democratic left” was his view of the Franco-British entente and the policies toward Russia followed by the imperialist countries after 1917: an extremely deadly blockade and direct military interventions. President.

[30] Means appeared as Billy Twofeathers in Thomas & the Magic Railroad (2000). But the prospect of socialization of the means of production within a democratic framework, which was also one of his fundamental aspirations, seems more remote than ever. Russell was, prior to being a socialist, a Georgist. In the 2004 and 2008 Presidential Elections, Means supported independent Ralph Nader. On January 8, 1988, Means held a press conference to announce his retirement from AIM, saying it had achieved its goals. Much of Russell’s reflection, in common with most pacifists, has been the attempt to find ways, such as appropriate education and systematic criticism of irrationality, to control self-destructive human passions. As for the developed countries, their hegemony over the rest of the world is in constant decline; if the day comes when these countries are obliged to solve their own problems without being able to shift them abroad, the question of another form of social organization will arise once more. For the major social transformation of the twentieth century was not in the direction of socialism but rather was decolonization (the communist movement in Asia should be seen primarily as anticolonial and anti-feudal, its adhesion to “communism” being essentially a means of gaining international support). Russell descended from an old establishment family. This shows up especially in the Communist Manifesto (written when he was twenty-nine years old). Even those who maintained that the USSR was not “genuine socialism” (expression which presumes that another socialism is possible) for the most part declared after 1991 that socialism itself was a failure. In 1983 he agreed to become running mate to Larry Flynt in his unsuccessful run for U.S. In their lifetime, Lenin, Stalin, and Mao enjoyed enormous popularity, which eroded sharply once they were gone. In addition to that unnatural selection, there is a “barricade effect” which was produced by foreign intervention in the Russian Civil War. He came to believe that the Miskito as a people were being targeted for elimination. "[47] Among the tributes were calls for "his face [to] have been on Mt. Fifty years before the “revelations” of Solzhenitsyn caused shock and dismay in the French intelligentsia of the 1970s—but also well before Stalin took power, before the Moscow trials and the disillusions of the 1930s, before the writings of Victor Serge and Boris Souvarin—Russell saw what nobody denies today: that the regime put in place by V. I. Lenin and Leon Trotsky in 1917 was a dictatorship, and a ferocious one at that. AIM Governing General Council issued a press release to reiterate its separation from Means. Citing numerous examples, Russell argued that even if economic factors play an important role, Marxists ignore “irrational” factors at their peril, and that the notion that wage-earners were dragged into the war because they were “misled by cunning capitalists” is largely a myth, because the capitalists were “in the grip of nationalist instinct as much as their proletarian ‘dupes.'”. [3] As well as Russell, the family had two other boys (William "Bill" and Warren) and three girls (Madonna, Mabel Ann and Phyllis). Iran today is much harder to subvert than it was in Mossadegh’s day. If Russell defends anarchist ideas, it is perhaps more because of his distrust of state socialism, of the Marxist variety, than for their inherent appeal. If the means of production and—as happened in the twentieth century—the means of information are concentrated in a few hands, those who possess them exercise an enormous power over the rest of the population. Topics: The book drew criticism from a number of reviewers. On December 29, 1997, Means was arrested for assault and battery of his 56-year-old (then) father-in-law Leon Grant, a member of the Diné (Navajo) Nation. He was also an admirer … At the same time, production became de facto “socialized” in the sense of involving many individuals instead of independent producers, requiring infrastructure enabling transport of raw materials and merchandise, and calling for educated workers in reasonably good health. "[34], Russell Means recorded a CD entitled Electric Warrior with Sound of America Records, in 1993. [17][18] In addition, Means noted that since treaties and other legal documents in relation to the United States government use "Indian", continuing use of the term could help today's American Indian people forestall any attempts by others to use legal loopholes in the struggle over land and treaty rights. Many records were taken or destroyed, and more than $2 million in damage was done to the building.[2].

Thus we see that the problem of the power exercised by the owners of the means of production is not solved merely by raising the standard of living. Moreover, everything that is more or less civilized in the developed countries—social security, democratic education, protection of workers, public services—was created in an essentially socialist spirit. Means announced the withdrawal by a small group of Lakota people. [5], In 1968, Means joined the American Indian Movement (AIM), where he rose to become a prominent leader. Instead, the First World War gave birth to communism and fascism. The most damaging intellectual confusion of the twentieth century has no doubt been to identify socialism with the Soviet adventure. None of that was foreseen or foreseeable before 1914, and surely not even the “statist” socialists of that period hoped for the type of absolute dictatorship that emerged from those hardships. There is no doubt that Russell was one of the first socialists to keep reminding those “who were dazzled by the external success of the Soviet Union, that they had forgotten the painful lessons of absolute monarchy,” that is, the corrupting effects of absolute power.5 He also refused to engage in one-sided criticism ignoring history and the domestic and foreign obstacles weighing on the Russian Revolution, that would merely have played into the hands of imperialists and reactionaries.

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