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1.1 The Spanish alphabet 3 1.2 Diphthongs 6 1.3 Syllabification 6 1.4 Sinalefa 7 1.5 The written stress accent 7 1.6 Punctuation 9 1.7 Capital letters 10 2 Gender and gender agreements 11 2.1 Masculine and feminine 11 2.2 Plural 11 2.3 General rules for gender 12 2.4 Words which are both masculine and feminine 12 2.5 Nouns which vary in gender 12 ��_"����[�����\2� bfY��v�Ǡ������g���pC2 ��J ��� �|�RCy�^���Q�X���!�X%���`��"�pt"Q�N��&�C!��h,2���� XE�ɕY��i)���M�yU��ݭ}����^W{% ��Bp�����\Wk ����n��!I��6��$���δ+s=ynG�˒�4g'[.

The sixteen-lesson book must, obviously, crowd several grammatical themes into one chapter. %%EOF 1941 0 obj <> endobj -T\46.��L�ЊD��F�D����#��1tB� [��B��0Y�i�4V�_x�����ж ��李���$��QIN�,͠ɶ� x��RKk�@���gwv7��W����@�!�h��Xɥ����RM �|����ߗ�U�,��e��L�_�'�YR�,��el��7yZn��׃�h�$�3r�*�{ T�c4��d���%�-h/ y ����x:v�zP�e���n/�#�Q Pc���-:��x�P��.����V(������vE^?J��@�Bqpi0Ұ���� �0Pnya�1�ڑ�hK��&�t��� ���38 endobj endstream endobj 739 0 obj <. <>>> endstream �N&�Ix 1952 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<47B4940E55D2163E96591FE928F8E7F2><21D5670569356844942D858CA1A3CDD7>]/Index[1941 204]/Info 1940 0 R/Length 91/Prev 1512353/Root 1942 0 R/Size 2145/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Stem-Changing Verbs The following verbs are irregular in the stem when conjugated, except* in the nosotros and vosotros forms. However, there are 4 forms, depending on the number and gender of the noun. <> <> 738 0 obj <> endobj <> Bl���+�p��"=�e�'�m%)�ɶT��aPZ�R�T,dдN�F�1j]�M)sjB1�M�Ȝj�M%QY2.��HI$�(X� ��hx4�� ��86*�7潺�m�ʖv��ɧj$ ��#�yx��N����zE�U_��RW�V���\Q���S��� ���|�e���H>�T�r9�R��I�SS+���mF�^�4+�&�Y%1I 7 0 obj 2144 0 obj <>stream Example e fi ie o fi ue e fi i cerrar (to close) dormir (to sleep) pedir (to ask) Y����M�a�D�aHbY�����]j�S#I1i:��x���oMO�����e �_k���@ j��/�9>��ꋯ�;�t2�AɓR]&`��$a��_/bە��8�(wn��ē�z����|���?0 �! 804 0 obj <>stream <> I@$��D %%EOF endobj 2 0 obj a grammar book such as Modern Spanish Grammar (Kattán-Ibarra and Pountain) also published by Routledge, for a full explanation. <> 1 0 obj ����'��tt���v�����Ԇ4����E/!�DzHx� ᐬ�$�YU��*J�e�4��{�^_�kB� ����;g�:�Ϟ}�I�ʥmY�Ǖﶺ�J���6�R,.�K��'�42��#!x$�Z�S yZ�P��U�rC-�84�ģ��t %PDF-1.5 ������z�} UvC�Y�ZO/HX��D�N�0�|6M�MT�.S.`��,EG��ҋ9f�ЭS��b}E�@;��'�������{v� �Swcsjb������d(x�����L���il2E�H��yj�P��8L��cP��4.��"��d�p&E�ej�,1��ĢX�F,j����̷�K �*���Ňh����u91�s�ަ�JMR���2ʒ�r�ZĔ�\:�M�+�|�L,������9|F(i�L"���#�$4��FQ1AF�1�x6�JB!�(�B���F�x��η������i ���� �o����@`v�\UT�r�b�S%M7k�:��M0�z)פj$\����e��L3Q�c'2B������"#bc��8lB,&.���@DE��b�cbc"��>�c �W��@�eM�fej�2�Y��t8goi��V����'�^,h4Gc6�R�G�Eєٕ���X�G�Wy> (�\�t��XA����+wu0t�u�ǡb$���p�����(��KM�u��α����?�"�+ h��Z}tUՕ?�#�{���� �@��{|�o�I�P����'i|$yHŖ�b0��PY�`%��Ɛ2�¨8���̳`�h���5�6tɀ]��������{��7�Zf-��s��޿�ۿ�/�"��r���'�đx����vU�����s�0wXʔwl^�O�!5��w��謷�/�'ڨ�=R���(�5�ܩ. �%/�,Kri):�]%��%�̦�:�2���౅�4>�Jǡ �xTL*&��GAƳ0H9�$6�i6�go��]���� �L,GF�����2S4���:+�6�S�q5W�߸rk>�����j ������)EI��%f��&7/U�0Im*^~��$Ý崻��NnR�LJ��JP�(�Zy�A��U�B���P�R�J�Jb�"�����("��Abb��8D4K��0Q1bb�]H�I��)w=�^�HCA�Uf�$T�%�E31 z�*��Xuՙi �Y5��������`` ��@x#�K.� endobj stream %PDF-1.5 %���� 6 0 obj �J��d��EF-�G/��I�j�ⱆ�-ueZ�����G�Q �D��MM1�=u~��4�U�fN�w>�B0�����t9�� �O�6`�����2.�fї�f���j�. What this course will do is enable you to use the language accurately in the majority of situations and will certainly give a thorough grounding in basic Spanish grammar. 0 endobj >�eP��ԩ�U!���V�$ͤK3jj�I*�q�,2&��b�0�D��AP�L��H`�P\JA&Y��l�ť�^����U6t��wf+8j*NL%�y,=?QB��8�4mx+�TsciVunJev�ƞ��!߽�l ���.�w��1��*�iN��,�]���ewX�r�Bh7ʒMJ��c�r�� SPANISH GRAMMAR CHEAT SHEET IMPERATIVO TO BE When: If you want to say: I walk, you walk, he walks, we walk, they walk When: Continuos actions in the past >> I walked, I was walking, I used to walk, while I walked PRESENTE GERUNDIO When: What is happening right now >> I´m walking, you are walking, he is walking, we are walking, they are walking h�bbd``b`�+��B �"� � 2AH!h�,�F�����e�%�β��O? Fǣz����Wv�4>�990����;� �_��.nj�W��QIE"6ť�f[���C%��HJ#� w��&�X.��Y&�B%�X %PDF-1.5 %���� �Q��I�Z�Ǯ˰]m��l��U|���Ŭ�N��� _˥+�+�#d��/'�۸�L��)�X�x������׷-O�gKhr� +��F(l5�PbK=�l��&7��4�� ��������l��U p���``nn!m/���%�cr*%���M� 8.g�͒�S;�2�^�b֤Z���m�d�Miz�U.p�n�*�a�t�]:�]!1��W�d����gqLkwG����o\�d]n�U��'�X% /�Q�\��M3 ���A�F#�"���K�|pItDDBtϧ��I�T�,âH7)Y����gCEM �!�M�.�l�#c[7m�k56�4ըH7�e�Zb�S�

stream 6 Example infinitive g fi jo coger (to pick, take) cojo escoger (to choose) escojo proteger (to protect) protejo dirigir (to manage) dirijo exigir (to demand) exijo 2. �N�� �b�Z$�ШL*�F�EE�EFa 8��F�pG'�$,��������\\>6 r�� ���%c1,*E�a�D�ΥY���J��D�F�c88��IH��ˬj��Y�\L��P�\2A΢���nK�[�+���_�9�m��y[ ������۹�y�\�!��ղL�1�i�X V�0U/Ͷ�r�Mv�\)�q�4*O@��8�F��9jI�F*LbQx4��A�3�"��G��h 3 0 obj <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Spanish grammar, whether they be distributed over sixty lessons or compressed into sixteen. endobj 5 0 obj endstream endobj startxref �S.NV�2�ZOh9M�V&�s4 763 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<188C447256E85643A2179D460732E671>]/Index[738 67]/Info 737 0 R/Length 111/Prev 155158/Root 739 0 R/Size 805/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream o$��M� ���9jT��(D�IS_�]趦$)zi��T���ҫ�zy(]���P� %���� Spanish, like English, has two articles: the definite article ("the") and the indefinite article ("a" or "an"). endobj

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