Unlike Albertosaurus, Dimetrodon teeth lacked adaptations that would stop cracks from forming at their serrations. Dictionary.com. In contrast to the lowland deltaic Red Beds of Texas, the Bromacker deposits are thought to have represented an upland environment with no aquatic species.

Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Karlsruhe, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Synapsid § Linnaean and cladistic classifications, University of Michigan Museum of Natural History, http://www.dictionary.com/browse/dimetrodon, "Dimetrodon is Not a Dinosaur: Using Tree Thinking to Understand the Ancient Relatives of Mammals and their Evolution", "A new basal sphenacodontid synapsid from the Late Carboniferous of the Saar-Nahe Basin, Germany", "Parallelism in the evolution of the Permian reptilian faunas of the Old and New Worlds", "Synapsida: mammals and their extinct relatives", "Autapomorphies of the main clades of synapsids", "A mixed-age classed 'pelycosaur' aggregation from South Africa: earliest evidence of parental care in amniotes? [17] The status of some of the species described by Cope is questionable, namely D. fritillus, D. gigas, D. incisivus, D. rectiformis, and D. semiradicatus.

[21], In 1940, Alfred Romer and Llewellyn Ivor Price proposed that the sail served a thermoregulatory function, allowing individuals to warm their bodies with the sun's heat. Synapsids were the first tetrapods to evolve differentiated, or heterodont, teeth. Large incisor teeth are also present at the tips of the upper and lower jaws, rooted in the premaxillae and dentary bones. Dimetrodon belonged to the most primitive ecosystem, which developed from aquatic food webs. Mammals are also homeothermic, although they differ from Dimetrodon in being endothermic, controlling their body temperature internally through heightened metabolism.

They thought that the sail of Dimetrodon enabled it to be homeothermic, maintaining a constant, albeit low, body temperature. The sail would be pointed towards the sun and would absorb heat allowing rapid warming.

In a study of the relationship between body temperature and blood pressure, Rodbard analyzed the evolution of thermoregulation, which he thought was one possible function of the sails of Dimetrodon and Edaphosaurus. milleri. The climate of the Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanaen) and Early Permian (Asse Lien, Sakmarien, Arti Skiing) resulted in warm, humid ecosystems in subtropical and tropical zones, consisting of vast wetland areas. The first was described from the Four Corners region of Utah in 1966[36] and another was described from Arizona in 1969.

[35] Williston did not consider his specimen to belong to Dimetrodon but instead classified it as an ophiacodontid. [28] However, recent studies have recovered varanopids as taxonomically closer to diapsid reptiles.[29][30]. [32] In 1940, Alfred Romer and Llewellyn Ivor Price reassigned Theropleura grandis to Dimetrodon, erecting the species D.

In addition to Dimetrodon, the most common tetrapods in the Red Beds and throughout Early Permian deposits in the southwestern United States, are the amphibians Archeria, Diplocaulus, Eryops, and Trimerorhachis, the reptiliomorph Seymouria, the reptile Captorhinus, and the synapsids Ophiacodon and Edaphosaurus.

Within clade Synapsida, Dimetrodon is part of the clade Sphenacodontia, which was first proposed as an early synapsid group in 1940 by paleontologists Alfred Romer and Llewellyn Ivor Price, along with the groups Ophiacodontia and Edaphosauria. It was around 50 million years before the first dinosaur. [32][23], Dimetrodon macrospondylus was first described by Cope in 1884 as Clepsydrops macrospondylus. In it, aquatic plants were the primary producers and were largely fed upon by fish and aquatic invertebrates. Dimetrodon loomisi was first described by Alfred Romer in 1937 along with D. booneorum, D. kempae, and D.

The genus Dimetrodon currently includes several more or less recognized types: Many species have been described by Edward Drinker Cope during his expeditions in 1880. [66][67] Most fossil finds are part of lowland ecosystems which, during the Permian, would have been vast wetlands. Dimetrodon occidentalis was named in 1977 from New Mexico. [8] The serrations of Dimetrodon teeth were so fine that they resembled tiny cracks. As a synapsid, Dimetrodon is more closely related to mammals than to dinosaurs or any living reptile. [39] The specimens found in Utah and Arizona probably also belong to D. [39][41], In 2001, a new species of Dimetrodon called D. teutonis was described from the Lower Permian Bromacker locality at the Thuringian Forest of Germany, extending the geographic range of Dimetrodon outside North America for the first time.[6]. Thus, the nasal cavity of Dimetrodon is transitional between those of early land vertebrates and mammals. [68] Based on the geology of deposits like the Red Beds, the fauna is thought to have inhabited a well-vegetated lowland deltaic ecosystem. Prehistoric Kingdom Dimetrodon concept art. [40], Dimetrodon teutonis was named in 2001 from the Saar Nahe Basin of Germany and was the first species of Dimetrodon to be described outside North America. Its skull was more heavily built than a dinosaur's. [23] The large sail of Dimetrodon is thought to have developed gradually from these smaller crests, meaning that over most of the sail's evolutionary history, thermoregulation could not have served an important function. Scientists were able to match records, and now it is just dimetrodon. [37] In 1975, Olson reported Dimetrodon material from Ohio. The theory is that Dimetrodon was active in the early morning when the sun rose.

Ophiacodontia was considered the most primitive group because its members appeared the most reptilian, and Sphenacodontia was the most advanced because its members appeared the most like a group called Therapsida, which included the closest relatives to mammals.

Based on a specimen from the Red Beds of Texas, it was the first known sail-backed synapsid. Besides its small size, D. milleri differs from other species of Dimetrodon in that its neural spines are circular rather than figure-eight shaped in cross-section. Dimetrodon may have had 'scales' on its belly like that of a rat on its tail. This led a climate change causing major extinction of the tetrapods, thus clearing the way for the development of therapsids. Reptile-like in appearance and physiology, Dimetrodon is nevertheless more closely related to mammals than to modern reptiles, though it is not a direct ancestor of mammals. In the front of the mouth were sharp canines and in the back were teeth that were used for grinding. [6] The largest known species of Dimetrodon is D. angelensis at around 4 metres (13 ft) and the smallest is D. teutonis at 60 centimetres (24 in). The length of the upper arm and thigh, the main measure that was used to distinguish between young and adult specimens, were examined and it was determined what type of sediment the fossils occurred.

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