Another one of the traits that the gazelle has is being able to last almost their whole lives without drinking any water, the only thing they need is moisture from plants. [32], All three subunits of the RecBCD enzyme are essential for physiological activities of the enzyme in the Antarctic Pseudomonas syringae, namely, repairing of DNA damage and supporting the growth at low temperature. They defend themselves from other creatures in their habitat by producing an offensive odor or loud hissing sound. [4] In addition to their temperature limit, psychrophiles must also adapt to other extreme environmental constraints that may arise as a result of their habitat.

Psychrophiles or cryophiles (adj. This means that the way they look, the way they behave, how they are built, or their way of life makes them suited to survive and reproduce in their habitats.

First I want to talk about how they survive in homes, we humans use something that's called bug repellent, this is used to kill cockroaches and bugs, however they have matured and now only the old/big bugs die in contact of the poison. Many such organisms are bacteria or archaea, but some eukaryotes such as lichens, snow algae, fungi, and wingless midges, are also classified as psychrophiles. They are found in places that are permanently cold, such as the polar regions and the deep sea. [6] [7] In addition, carotenoids are present in the membrane, which help modulate the fluidity of it. Variation is essentially a form of natural selection that takes place during long periods of time. [3] Microbial activity has been measured in soils frozen below −39 °C.

At freezing temperatures, growth of psychrotrophic bacteria becomes negligible or virtually stops. [18], Insects that are psychrotrophic can survive cold temperatures through several general mechanisms (unlike opportunistic and chill susceptible insects): (1) chill tolerance, (2) freeze avoidance, and (3) freeze tolerance.

They provide an estimation of the product's shelf life, but also they can be found in soils,[27] in surface and deep sea waters,[28] in Antarctic ecosystems,[29] and in foods.

Penguins are very impresive creatures, they live in temperatures under 0 degrees and swim in temperatures that never rise above freezing point. Well, for these animals it's the same.

How Do Organisms Adapt to Their Environments. According to the Food Science Department at Cornell University, psychrotrophs are bacteria capable of growth at temperatures at or less than 7 °C (44.6 °F). Their sandy coloured fur provides a splendid camouflage in the amber and saffron colour of the desert. Compared to longer saturated fatty acids, incorporating this type of fatty acid allows for the lipid cell membrane to have a lower melting point, which increases the fluidity of the membranes. [19] Chill tolerant insects succumb to freezing temperatures after prolonged exposure to mild or moderate freezing temperatures. [34] In 1958, J. L. Ingraham supported this by concluding that there are very few or possibly no bacteria that fit the textbook definitions of psychrophiles. Finally, both helicase and nuclease activity of the RecBCDPs are although important for DNA repair and growth of P. syringae at low temperature, the RecB-nuclease activity is not essential in vivo. For example, giraffes have very long necks so that they can eat tall vegetation, which other animals cannot reach. Richard Y. Morita emphasizes this by using the term psychrotroph to describe organisms that do not meet the definition of psychrophiles.

[15], Penicillium is a genus of fungi found in a wide range of environments including extreme cold. They also have thick layers of insulative fur and fat to protect them from cold winds, and a waxy coat that helps repel water, keeping the bears warm and protected against frostbite and hypothermia when swimming and after leaving the water .

To accomplish this, psychrophiles adapt lipid membrane structures that have a high content of short, unsaturated fatty acids. Their feet have become webbed,their bodies are streamlined to reduce drag while swimming and lastly their black wings are shaped like flippers which help them to reach up to 15 mph (24 km/ h) In Antartica, about 100% of the time it's freezing cold.

These constraints include high pressure in the deep sea, and high salt concentration on some sea ice. and members of the genera Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Hyphomonas, and Sphingomonas. First, they have the advantage of having thick skin but that's not all, they huddle together with friends which helps them to warm up and the skin on their back surface absorbs heat from the sun. These organisms can also be found in pockets of sea ice with high salinity content. Steven C. Murphy, "Shelf LIfe of Fluid Milk Products -- Microbial Spoilage", Food Science Department, Cornell University. They've adapted to living in houses, small holes, leaves, soil, trees and (as we all know from past experiences) Kitchens. For just a moment think of living in one of the coldest places in the world, your first priority is to- not freez to death, right!

Much like the Camel, the stunning fox can survive without drinking water for a lot of time. [13][2] Some multicellular eukaryotes can also be metabolically active at sub-zero temperatures, such as some conifers;[14] those in the Chironomidae family are still active at −16 °C. Polar bears, for instance, have several key traits and characteristics that make them capable of enduring the often harsh conditions of life in Antarctica. [3], Certain cryophiles, such as Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio and Aeromonas spp., can transition into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. They are present in permafrost, polar ice, glaciers, snowfields and deep ocean waters. Another way that they have adapted their bodies is that their nostrils are able to open and close which also keeps sand from getting into their noses, even their ears have hair in them so that sand doesn't get in. Here are 5 outstanding Animals that adapted/took-advantage-of their bodies in very peculiar ways to survive in their new environments. [36], Organism capable of growing and reproducing in the cold, "A Low Temperature Limit for Life on Earth", "Psychrophilic Microorganisms: Challenges for Life", "Some like it cold: understanding the survival strategies of psychrophiles", "The importance of the viable but non-culturable state in human bacterial pathogens", "Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair", "Antarctic midge has smallest insect genome", "Insect cold tolerance: How many kinds of frozen? Due to this, early investigators did not determine the cardinal temperatures for their isolates. ), moderate (e.g., Cryptocercus punctulatus[23]), and strong freezing tolerance (e.g., Eurosta solidaginis[24] and Syrphus ribesii[25]), and other insect species exhibiting freezing tolerance with low supercooling point (e.g., Pytho deplanatus[26]).

First I want to talk about how they survive in homes, we humans use something that's called bug repellent, this is used to kill cockroaches and bugs, however they have matured and now only the old/big bugs die in contact of the poison. Organisms have the ability to adapt to specific conditions within their environments through the biological process of variation, which enhance organisms' chances of survival. The RecBCD enzymes are exchangeable between the psychrophilic P. syringae and the mesophilic E. coli when provided with the entire protein complex from same species. Variation creates small, incremental changes over time that make organisms more suited for life in different locations. [1], They must also overcome the stiffening of their lipid cell membrane, as this is important for the survival and functionality of these organisms. They have also evolved outside man made houses, such as in their actual habitats which are forests, burrows and caves. Created with images by Muffet - "Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches" • BrynJ - "Penguin close-up" • MrGuilt - "Snoozing Fennec Fox" • Marie Hale - "Dorcas gazelle".

[8], The enzymes of these organisms have been hypothesized to engage in an activity-stability-flexibility relationship as a method for adapting to the cold; the flexibility of their enzyme structure will increase as a way to compensate for the freezing effect of their environment. This must be the cutest animal on this list.

[12] Another example is Chryseobacterium greenlandensis, a psychrophile that was found in 120,000-year-old ice. An advantage of this state is that it is highly reversible.

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